Tertiary education or post-secondary schooling is referred to in Education Act of 1982 as “higher education leading to a degree in a specific profession or discipline.” This is to provide a general education program that will promote national identity, cultural consciousness, moral integrity and spiritual vigor, train the nation’s manpower in the skills required for national development, to develop the profession that will provide leadership for the nation; and to advance knowledge through research work and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of human life and responding effectively to changing societal needs and conditions. (Aquino, 2003)
According to Aquino (2003), a careful scrutiny of the aforementioned objectives will suffice to impress in the people’s minds the crucial importance of tertiary or college education.
There are numerous reasons that college education is important. Among these reasons are gaining advantage over competition, demonstrating aptitude in a specific area and the fact that many job opening require a college degree are few of the top reasons. (http://www.degreedirectory.com). Moreover, college education many more opportunities in working life, especially for higher paid jobs and the chance to work with and be taught by some of the finest and most knowledgeable people. (http://www.importanceofcollege.com).
McGuire (2010) stressed that getting a college education is the most important investment one can make in life because having a college degree often provides the greater promotion opportunity. The reasoning does not begin with the job aspect. Some students also put off the importance of college education because of the price tags that can with it. In this case, the major step that student should take is attending the college of his/her choice and the other main concern is the choosing the actual course to pursue.
Internationally, the best college degrees in demand are dependent upon the need and interest of students and vary according to the salary derived form them. The most in demand college degree vary according to the salary derived from them. There are lot many careers in the health and information sectors. Subsequent developments have also given rise to different careers in demand that is associated with media, arts and entertainment. The top 10 college degrees include information science and systems, finance/accounting and economics, marketing management, business management, engineering degree, medical degree, journalism and advertising, arts and literature, multimedia and design, and science and research. (http://www.buzzle.com/aticles/college-degrees-in-demand.html).
According to http://wiki.answer.com , in 2010, the most in demand college courses in the Philippines include culinary arts, business, accounting, engineering, information technology, nursing, psychology, graphic design, digital arts and hotel and restaurant management.
Based on the data collected form leading colleges and universities within South Cotabato, a province in the southern part of the Philippines, the most in dement courses include Business courses, Education, Information Technology, Science and Technology courses and Liberal Arts.
Looking into these data, the preference of the student can be observed. It can be noted that from the international setting down to local venue, the most preferred course are the technical ones while the least preferred are those in the liberal arts which include the Bachelor of Arts courses.
Among the Bachelor of Arts Courses belong the major in English program, popularly known as Bachelor of Arts major in English program (AB English). It is a four year baccalaureate degree program designed to provide a strong background in the study of English. Its goal is to help develop students’ analytical and creative power with particular respect to the basic acts of communication skills. The program stresses literary analysis, diversity, critical thinking and written and oral communication skills through a rigorous curriculum of literature, composition, language, linguistic and communication studies. It is an excellent preparation for careers in teaching, media, advertising, writing and publishing, for graduate or professional studies in English, communication or law and for the advancement in may field where communication skills are important. (http://www.thedegreeexperts.com/sd-bachelor-of-arts-in-english-145.aspx)
These advantages that the AB English program will have to offer should make should make the course very attractive to students. However, it is not always the case. The list of top ten courses in the Philippines does not include AB English. In South Cotabato, four leading colleges and universities include AB courses in their top ten courses, however, the AB English program cannot keep up with the increase in enrolment of other AB courses.
In Notre Dame-Siena College of Polomolok where the study is centered, the AB English program has increased in enrolment since it was offered in the School Year 2008-2009. However, as compared to other courses offered by the institution, the program gamers only a mere four percent (4%) enrolment share ( as of second semester , School Year 2010 – 2011).
It is in this light that the researcher s would like to conduct the study of the perception of the senior high school students of Poblacion Polomolok towards Notre Dame Siena College of Polomolok’s Bachelor of Arts Major in English program in order to address question on the staggering enrolment of this degree program.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to determine the perception of the senior high school student of Baranggay Poblacion, Polomolok , South Cotbato towards Notre-Dame Siena College of Polomolok’s Bachelor of Arts Major in English Program.
Specifically, this study will answer the following questions:
1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondent in terms of:
1.2 ethnic affiliations;
1.3 religious affiliations;
1.4 parents’ monthly combined income;
1.5 parents’ highest educational background;
1.6 geographical locations.
2. What is the level of awareness of senior high school students of Brgy. Poblacion, Polomolok towards NDSCP’s Bachelor of Arts in English Program.?
3. What is the perception of the respondents towards NDSCP’s Bachelor of Arts in English program?
4. Are the perception of the respondents towards NDSCP’s Bachelor of Arts in English program significantly affected by their socio-demographic profile in terms of:
4.2 ethnic affiliations;
4.3 religious affiliations;
4.4 parents’ monthly combined income;
4.5 parents’ highest educational background;
4.6 geographical locations.
Scope and Limitation
This study will be limited to the determination of the perception of senior high school student of Brgy. Poblacion, Polomolok South Cotabato towards Notre Dame-Siena College of Polomolok’s Bachelor of Arts major in English program. The respondents will be senior high school students from the seven high schools within the Brgy. Poblacion, Polomolok namely: Notre Dame-Siena College of Polomolok (NDSCP), General Santos Academy (GSA), Poblacion, Polomolok National High School (PPNHS), Christian School of Polomolok (CSP), San Lorenzo Ruiz Academy of Polomolok (SLRAP), Better Educational Systems Technology (BEST), and Schola de San Jose (SDSJ).
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following entities:
School Administration. The result of the study will guide the school administrators in designing an effective strategy of marketing the degrees offered by the institution.
Students. The result of the study will help the students in their choice of degree to take up in college.
Parents. The result of the study will help the parents in assisting their children in their choice of degree to take up in college.
Other Researchers. This study will add to the growing body of information the field of educational research. The result of the study will be serving as a guide of other researchers who would like to embark on a conduct of study of similar nature.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter represents the review on related literature and studies regarding topic about the Perception of the people of Polomolok towards Notre dame-Siena College of Polomolok Bachelor of Arts Major in English: Basis for Effective Advertising Strategies.
Bachelor of Arts major in English (AB English) is a four year baccalaureate degree program designed to provide a strong background in the study of English. Its goal is to help develop students’ analytical and creative powers with particular respect to the basic acts of communication, critical thought, responsible speech and competent, insightful language and communication skills.
The program stresses literally analysis, diversity, critical thinking and written and oral communication skills through a rigorous curriculum of literature, composition, language and linguistic and communication studies. It is an excellent preparation for careers in teaching, media, advertising writing and publishing; for graduate or professional studies in English, communication or law and for the advancement in any field where communication skills are important.
AB English program in Notre Dame-Siena College of Polomolok was started, School Year: 2008-2009. At present the population of AB English was increased since 2008 until now. However if we compare the trends of the population of the arts and sciences baccalaureate degree program of the other competitive school such as: Notre Dame of Dadiangas University, Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Colleges, and Holy Trinity College, have a big differences in terms of population. That’s why we conduct this study to determine the perception of the senior high school students of Barangay Poblacion, Polomolok , South Cotbato.
This study presents the related studies which inline to the study under the investigation research. At the outset of the study, the researcher engaged in gathering information related to the research studies. The body information gathered has provided the researcher with additional insights as related to this study as a: how to prepare your child for college starting from 3rd year high school and what to do with a college Education.
Preparing your child for college starting form 3rd year high school is seemingly Universal law of parenthood involves a deep-seated desire within us to see our kids succeed in life by doing well in a chosen career or vocation. One of the best times to act on that parental instinct, according to trainor, Mae Legaspi, is around the child’s third year in high school, as he begins looking forward to college. The formula is not rocket science for majority of parents whose an investment in their child’s future would be a college education.
Filipino children in Particular tend to just follow the course recommended by their parents-usually unwittingly chosen without strong focus on the child’s gifts and talents. The adult is stress untapped giftedness and much unhappiness ( Legaspi, M. ).
In 2008 most enrollees of the women taking the course of engineering ( Baris, K.). Not every Filipino has the same chance to get a good education and thus to choose what they want to do with their lives. Their whole lives are spent trying to make money just to get by day after day. In our country, 70 percent of Filipinos aged 16-24 are out of school. Most of them didn’t choose to be so. There is nothing wrong with planning you career and having a dream for yourself.
Self-perception theory (SPT) is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. It asserts that people develop their attitudes by observing their behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. The theory is counterintuitive in nature, as the conventional wisdom is that attitudes come prior to behaviors. Furthermore, the theory suggests that a person induces attitudes without accessing internal cognition and mood states. The person reasons their own overt behaviors rationally in the same way they attempt to explain others’ behaviors.
Original experiment on self-perception theory
In an attempt to decide whether individuals induce their attitudes as observers without accessing their internal states, Bem used interpersonal simulations, in which an “observer-participant” is given a detailed description of one condition of a cognitive dissonance experiment. Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task. Some subjects were told that the man had been paid $20 for his testimonial and another group was told that he was paid $1. Those in the latter condition thought that the man must have enjoyed the task more than those in the $20 condition. The results obtained were similar to the original Festinger-Carlsmith experiment. Because the observers, who did not have access to the actors’ internal cognition and mood states, were able to infer the true attitude of the actors, it is possible that the actors themselves also arrive at their attitudes by looking at their own behavior from an observer’s standpoint.
There are numerous studies conducted by psychologists that support the self-perception theory, demonstrating that emotions do follow behaviors. For example, it is found that corresponding emotions (including liking, disliking, happiness, anger, etc.) were reported following from their overt behaviors, which had been manipulated by the experimenters. These behaviors included making different facial expressions, gazes and postures. In the end of the experiment, subjects inferred and reported their affections and attitudes from their practiced behaviors despite the fact that they were told previously to act that way. These findings are consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion.Evidence for the self-perception theory has also been seen in real life situations. After teenagers participated in repeated and sustained volunteering services, their attitudes were demonstrated to have shifted to be more caring and considerate towards others.
One useful application of the self-perception theory is in changing attitude, both therapeutically and in terms of persuasion.
Firstly, for therapies, self-perception theory holds a different view of psychological problems from the traditional perspectives which suggest that those problems come from the inner part of the clients. Instead, self-perception theory perspective suggests that people attribute their inner feelings or abilities from their external behaviors. If those behaviors are maladjusted ones, people will attribute those maladjustments to their poor adapting abilities and thus suffer from the corresponding psychological problems. Thus, we can make use of this concept to treat clients with psychological problems that are resulted from maladjustments by guiding or giving suggestions to them to firstly change their behaviors and later the ‘problems’.
One of the most famous therapies making use of this concept is therapy for ‘Heterosocial Anxiety'. In this case, the assumption is that an individual perceives that he or she has poor social skills because he/she has no dates. Experiments showed that males with heterosocial anxiety perceived less anxiety with females after several sessions of therapy in which they engaged in a 12-minute, purposefully biased dyadic social interactions with a separate female. From these apparently successful interactions, the males inferred that their heterosocial anxiety was reduced. This effect is shown to be quite long-lasting as the reduction in perceived heterosocial anxiety resulted in a significantly greater number of dates among subjects 6 months later.
Secondly, self-perception theory is an underlying mechanism for the effectiveness of many marketing or persuasive techniques. One typical example is the foot-in-the-door technique, which is a widely-used marketing technique for persuading target customers to buy products. The basic premise of this technique is that, once a person complies with a small request (e.g. filling in a short questionnaire), he/she will be more likely to comply with a more substantial request which is related to the original request (e.g. buying the related product). The idea is that the initial commitment on the small request will change one’s self image, therefore giving reasons for agreeing with the subsequent, larger request. It is because people observe their own behaviors (paying attention to and complying with the initial request) and the context in which they behave (no obvious incentive to do so), and thus infer they must have a preference for those products.
Challenges and criticisms
The self-perception theory was initially proposed as an alternative to explain the experimental findings of the cognitive dissonance theory, and there were debates as to whether people experience attitude changes as an effort to reduce dissonance or as a result of self-perception processes. Basing on the fact that the self-perception theory differs from the cognitive dissonance theory in that it does not hold that people experience a "negative drive state" called "dissonance" which they seek to relieve, the following experiment was carried out to compare the two theories under different conditions. An early study on cognitive dissonance theory shows that people indeed experience arousal when their behavior is inconsistent with their previous attitude. Waterman designed an experiment in which participants were asked to write an essay arguing against the position they agreed. Then they were asked immediately to perform a simple task and a difficult task and their performance in both tasks were assessed. It was found that they performed better in the simple task and worse in the difficult task, compared to those who had just written an essay corresponding to their true attitude. As indicated by social facilitation, enhanced performance in simple tasks and worsened performance in difficult tasks shows that arousal is produced by people when their behavior is inconsistent with their attitude. Therefore, the cognitive dissonance theory is evident in this case.
Disproof of Self-Perception Theory?
There was a time when it was debated whether or not dissonance or self perception was the valid mechanism behind attitude change. The chief difficulty was in finding an experiment where the two flexible theories would make distinctly different predictions. Some prominent social psychologists such as Anthony Greenwald thought it would be impossible to distinguish between the two theories.
Zanna and Cooper in 1974 conducted an experiment in which individuals were made to write a counter-attitudinal essay. They were divided into either a low choice or a high choice condition. They were also given a placebo; they were told the placebo would induce either tension, relaxation, or exert no effect.
Under low choice, all participants exhibited no attitude change, which would be predicted by both cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory.
Interestingly, under high choice, participants who were told the placebo would produce tension exhibited no attitude change, and participants who were told the placebo would produce relaxation demonstrated larger attitude change.
These results are not explainable by self-perception theory as arousal should have nothing to do with the mechanism underlying attitude change. Cognitive dissonance theory, however, was readily able to explain these results: if the participants could attribute their state of unpleasant arousal to the placebo, they wouldn't have to alter their attitude.
Thus, for a period of time, it seemed the debate between self-perception theory and cognitive dissonance had ended.
Reviving Self-Perception Theory: The Truce Experiment
Fazio, Zanna, and Cooper conducted another experiment in 1977 that demonstrated that both cognitive dissonance and self-perception could co-exist.
In an experimental design similar to the previous one, another variable was manipulated: whether or not the stance of the counter-attitudinal essay fell in the latitude of acceptance or the latitude of rejection (see Social judgment theory). Interestingly, it appeared that when the stance of the essay fell into the latitude of rejection, the results favored cognitive dissonance. However, when the essay fell in the latitude of acceptance, the results favored self-perception theory.
Whether cognitive dissonance or self-perception is a more useful theory is a topic of considerable controversy and a large body of literature. There are some circumstances where either theory is preferred, but it is traditional to use the terminology of cognitive dissonance theory by default. The cognitive dissonance theory accounts attitude changes when people’s behaviors are inconsistent with their original attitudes which are clear and important to them; while the self-perception theory is used when those original attitudes are relatively ambiguous and less important. Studies have shown that in contrast to traditional belief, a large proportion of people’s attitudes are weak and vague. Thus, the self-perception theory is significant in interpreting one’s own attitudes, such as one’s assessment of one’s personality traits and whether one would cheat to achieve a goal.
According to G. Jademyr and Yojiyfus, the perception of different aspect in the interpretending theory can be due to many factor, such as circumstances regarding dissonance and controversy. This can also be because of the balance-theory is transformed into the attitude towards account and dimensions.
According to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-perception_theory
Senior High School students of Brgy. Poblacion Polomolok
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Awareness - having knowledge of something from having observed it or been told about it, operationally, it refers to the knowledge of seniors students towards NDSCP's AB English program.
Perception - conceptually it refers to the process of using the senses to acquire information about the surrounding understand it well; operationally it refers to the understanding of the seniors students.
Descriptive-correlational design will be used to determine the significant relationship of the perception of the senior high school students and the socio-demographic profile of these respondents.
This study will be conducted within the Brgy. Poblacion of the Polomolok, South Cotabato particularly in the seven high school within Brgy. Polomolok namely: Notre Dame-Siena Colllege of Polomolok (NDSCP), general Santos Academy (GSA), Poblacion Polomolok (SLARAP), Beter Educational Systems Technology (BEST), and Schola de San Jose (SDSJ).
These respondents will the senior students from the identified schools within Brgy. Poblacion, Polomolok, South cotabato. In choosing the respondents of this study, the researcher will select through purposive sampling method where the top students of the senior students class of identified schools will be included in the study.
The research instruments that will be utilized in the study is a researcher-made questionnaire. The data gathering instrument will be composed of two parts. Part I will be comprise of the questions regarding the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and Part II will be composed of closed-ended questions regarding the awareness and perception of the respondents towards NDSCP’s AB English program.
Data Gathering Procedure
At the outset of the study, the researcher engaged in the gathering information related to the research variables. The body of information gathered have provided the researcher with additional insights as to the instrument to be used in gathering data.
To start the study, the researcher will deliver a letter of request for the conduct of the study to the principals of the identified high schools within Brgy. Poblacion, Polomolok, South Cotabato. Upon the approval of the request, the researcher will select the respondents. After identifying the respondents, the researcher, in coordination with the Guidance Councelor of the school, will gather the respondents in one place for the administration of the instrument.
Information and response of the students will be processed and subjected to statistical treatment. The findings will be extracted and analyzed based on the processed data.
The following statistical tools will be utilized the data gathered:
1. Sub-problem no. 1 will utilized frequency count and percentage distribution.
2. Sub-problem no. 2 and 3 will utilized mean.
3. Sub-problem no. 4 will utilized Chi-square.